Showing posts with label FOOD & NUTRITION. Show all posts
Showing posts with label FOOD & NUTRITION. Show all posts

Sunday, 15 April 2018

TRADITIONAL DISHES

RECIPE FOR SOME TRADITIONAL DISHES
1.Tuwon Alkam (wheat foo foo) Hausa dish
Preparation
Recipe
Wheat flour (milled with husk)
Margarine cups
Water 4 cups
Method
- Mix small amount of sifted wheat flour with little water to make a paste, pour the paste into boiling water with a wooden spoon and stir well until thick.
-Add the remaining sifted flour a little at a time and stir fast to avoid lumps. Reduce heat and cook for another 10minutes.
-Mould round in a dish and serve with draw soup.

2. Igbo dish (Onugu soup)
Recipe
1 big size of stock fish)
1 medium size cow leg
1 kg beef
I medium trip
3 tablespoons of ground crayfish
1 large size smoke fish
1 milk cup of cooked cocoyam paste
3big balls of washed bitter leaves
3 cooking spoonfuls of palm oil
3 table spoonful of ogiri fermented melon.
2 table spoons of dried pepper (ground)
2 cubes of magi

Method
- Wash and season the beef, cow leg and put  magi cube, salt and cook for 40minutes. Add stockfish and boil all till tender
- Add palm oil, pepper, crayfish, a cocoyam paste, and fish cook until no lump of cocoyam paste is seen.
-Mash the goitre, put it together into  the pot, stir and cook for 10minutes


NOTE :  Serve with foofoo

INTERCONTINENTAL DISHES


FOREIGN DISHES

The following are examples of foreign dishes:
1. Butter chicken
2.Tandoori chicken
3.Chicken tikka masala
4.Rogan josh
5.Malai koft (veg ball in a thick sauce)
6.Chole chicken curry
7.Palak puree (spinarch and cottage cheese)

These are european dishes
1.Hungarian rice cake
2.Hungarian cream puffs
3.Hungari sweet rolls
4.Cream cheese pound cake
5.Nut roll
6.Bread pudding
7.Royal mazurek

These are American dishes:
1. Breakfast in a bread basket
2.Hazelnut cafe an lait
3.Cheddar-potato frittata
4.Ham-and-chesse strata

These are Chinese dishes:
1.Sweet and sour pork
2.Gong bao chicken
3.Wonfons
4.Peking roasted duck


Recipe for butter chicken
Recipe:
1kg boneless, chicken skin removed
Juice of one lime
Salt to taste
I tsp red chilli powder adjust to (suit your taste)
6 cloves
8-10 pepper corns
1 stick of cinnamon
2 bay leaves
8-10 almonds
Seeds from pods of cardamom
1 cup fresh yoghurt (must  not be sour)
3tbsp vegetables/carrot/sun flour cooking oil
2 onions chopped
2tspn garlic paste
1 tspn ginger paste
2tspn cumin powder
1tspn turmeric powder
¼ tspn turmeric powder
400g/140z of chopped tomatoes, ground into smooth paste in a food process.
½ litre chicken stock
2 tbsps kasuri methi (dried fermented leaves)
3tbsps in melted, soft butter
Salt to taste
Coriander leaves to garnish

Method (preparation)
Mix the chicken, lime juice, salt and red chilli powder in a large, no-mettalic bowl. Cover and allow to marinate for one hour. Heat a feat pan or gridle on medium heat and gently roast (stirring frequently) the cloves, pepper corns, cinnamon, bayleaves and almond till they darken slightly, cool and the cardamom seeds.

Now grind in a coarse powder in a clean, dry coffee grinder. Mix the yoghurt, above whole spice powder (from previous step), coriander, cumin and turmeric powder together and them to the chicken. Allow to marinate for another one hour.Heat the oil in a deep pan on medium heat. When hot, add the onion. Fry till pale golden brown in colour and then add the ginger and garlic pastes. Fry for a minute.Add only the chicken from the chicken spice, mix and fry the sakad (chickenwill turn opaque and the flesh will go from pink to whitish in colour.

Now, add the tomatoes paste, chicken, stock kasuri methi and remaining part of the yoghurt-spice mix to the chicken. Cook till the chicken is tender and the gravy is reduced to half its original volume. Melt the butter in another small pan and then pour it over the chicken. Garnish with coriander leaves and serve with NAAN and kaali oaal.


Chinese dish
Recipe:
4 onions nonfat cream cheese product
½ cup nonfat sour cream alternative
2 tablespoon commercial no-salt-added mild salsa
½ teaspoon ground cumin
¼ teaspoon salt
¼ teaspoon ground red pepper
1 ½ cups shredded cooked chicken
1/3 cup finely chopped sweet red pepper
1/3 cup minced green onions
8 ¾ ounce slices reduced – calorie whole wheat bread, toasted
16 medium size fresh spinarch leaves
1 cup alfalfa sprouts

Method
Combine first 6 ingredints in a small bowl. Stir in chicken, sweet red pepper, and green onions. Spread mixture evenly with spinarch leaves. Place alfalfa sprouts evenly over spinarch; top with remaining 4 bread slices.
White bean salsa
Recipe
½ cup draine canned navy beans
¼ cup seeded, diced tomatoes
¼ cup minced purple onion
2 tablespoons minced fresh cilantro
I tablespoon neede minced jalapeno pepper
I tablespoon lime juice
¼ teaspoon ground cumin
¼ teaspoon chilli powder

Method:
Combine all ingredients in a small bowl, stirring well. Cover and let stand for two hours.

FOOD AND NUTRITION

INTRODUCTION
Historically, people secured food through two methods hunting and gathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy consumed by the world population is supplied by the food industry. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals.  The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.

NUTRITIONAL PROCESSES

Food: Is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body.

Nutrition: Is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs. It can be also defined as the science of food and its relation to health. It includes good diet, digestion and metabolism. It is also expressed as the sum of the processes involved in taking in nutrients and assimilating and utilizing them. Nutrients are highly essential and necessary for growth, maintenance, repair of the human body

Good nutrition : Is an adequate, well balanced diet combined with regular physical activity : Is a cornerstone of good health. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Ingestion: Is the consumption of a substance by an organism. In animals, it normally is accomplished by taking in the substance through the mouth into the gastrointestinal tract, such as through eating or drinking. In single-celled organisms, ingestion can take place through taking the substance through the cell membrane Ingestion is the taking in of food or other substances.



Digestion: Refers to the breakdown of food into smaller particles, capable of later absorption.

In humans, the mouth is the portal of "ingestion", whereas most" digestion" occurs in the stomach and bowel. These are the processes that happen in the digestive system:


Ingestion (Eating) → Digestion (Breaking Down) → Absorption → Egestion

Absorption: Digested food molecules are absorbed in the small intestine. This means that they pass through the wall of the small intestine and into our bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, the digested food molecules are carried around the body to where they are needed. The inside wall of the small intestine needs to be thin, with a really big surface area. This allows absorption to happen quickly and efficiently. If the small intestine had a thick wall and a small surface area, a lot of digested food might pass out of the body before it had a chance to be absorbed. To get a big surface area, the inside wall of the small intestine is lined with tiny villi (one of them is called a villus). These stick out and give a big surface area. They also contain blood capillaries to carry away the absorbed food molecules. Digested food molecules are absorbed in the small intestine. This means that they pass through the wall of the small intestine and into our bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, the digested food molecules are carried around the body to where they are needed.


Egestion

Excess water is absorbed back into the body in the large intestine. What is left then is undigested food. This is stored in the rectum, the lower part of the large intestine, until we are ready to go to the toilet. It then comes out of the rectum through the anus as faeces. This process is called egestion
It  is the discharge or expulsion of undigested material (food) from a cell in case of unicellular organisms, and from the digestive tract via the anus in case of multicellular organisms.It should not be confused with excretion, which is getting rid of waste formed from the chemical reaction of the body, such as in urine, sweat. It is the removal of undigested food or faeces from the gut. In most animals egestion takes place via the anus, although the invertebrate flatworms must use the mouth because their gut has no exit. Egestion refers solely to indigestible matter which is never absorbed into the cells – it should not be confused with excretion of the waste products of metabolism.

Excretion : Is the transfer of substances out of a living organism into its environment. At its simplest, for single-cell forms of life, this involves extrusion across the cell membrane of the unwanted or potentially toxic by-products of respiration and metabolism.

Assimilation: Is the combination of two processes to supply animal cells with nutrients. It can also be defined as the conversion of nutrients into fluid or solid substance of the body by the process of either absorption or digestion.

   - The conversion of nutriment into a useable form (e.g. liquid or solid) that is incorporated into the tissues and organs following the processes of digestion.
  - The chemical alteration of substances in the bloodstream by the liver or cellular secretions.

Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change" or Greek: μεταβολισμός metabolisms, "out throw") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments.

The word metabolism can also refer to all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism.


CATEGORY OF METABOLISM

Metabolism is usually divided into two categories:
[1] Catabolism:  Breaks down organic matter, for example to harvest energy in cellular respiration.  Is the set of metabolic processes that break down large molecules. These include breaking down and oxidizing food molecules. The purpose of the catabolic reactions is to provide the energy and components needed by anabolic reactions.
[2] Anabolism: Is the set of constructive metabolic processes where the energy released by catabolism is used to synthesize complex molecules. Absorption and  egestion. Anabolism uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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